From the Author This book is intended as an introduction to the science of microlithography for those new to the subject, and it covers advanced topics useful to experienced lithographers who seek information outside their own areas of expertise. Numerous references to the literature in optical lithograpy will guide both novice and experienced lithographers who want greater detail in specific areas. A number of discussions--such as thin-resist modeling, metrics for imaging, thin-film optics, and the modeling of focus effects--first appeared in Advanced Micro Design internal reports. Eventually, parts of these reports were published elsewhere. Their tutorial nature is not coincidental, as they were analyses that I used to develop my own understanding of lithography. Complex situations often are best comprehended through simple models that describe the relevant physics, with remaining effects considered as perturbations. This is the approach I used in learning lithography and it is the method used here. Students in my classes on lithography science will recognize many of the figures and equations. Several also appear in the first chapter of the SPIE Handbook on Microlithography, Micromachining, and Microfabrication, Volume I: Microlithography, which I coauthored with Bill Arnold of ASM Lithography. Other topics have been added or significantly expanded, especially those concerning light sources, photomasks, and next-generation lithography. The chapter on photoresists is approached from the perspective of the practicing lithographer, rather than the resist chemist. Some knowledge of resist chemistry is essential for using resists properly, but the emphasis here is on operational considerations. --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title. Read more About the Author Dr. Harry J. Levinson has worked in microlithography for nearly two decades, at companies such as IBM, Sierra Semiconductor, and Advanced Micro Devices. He has published many articles on lithography science, from thin film optical effects and metrics for imaging to overlay and process control. He teaches courses in lithography science, process control, and total quality management. Read more
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